Mining comes with its own risks and today, there are a lot of strategies to make this a lot safer. One of the ways of ensuring safety is from ground support techniques. The challenge faced by ground support is proper maintenance of the stability of excavation work. The rock mass undergoes stress due to the static and dynamic forces caused by excavation. This results in the deformation of openings and failures within the rock. Mining can reduce the strength of the rock at its core. All of these changes can cause complex behaviour on the rock mass such as micro cracks which can further worsen and cause sudden failure.
Deep mining should be carefully supervised to make sure that all deformations that occur are tracked and solutions are provided swiftly to avoid catastrophes. There are companies such as MCIT that can provide quality assurance and quality control solutions and extensive ground support solutions. Having companies that specialise in ground support supervise excavations is a great way of contributing to the health and safety of the workers. Some of the critical factors of fracturing in underground mines are temperature, water pressure, the concentration of stress and seismicity. Each mine can bring with it many different challenges. To properly understand the issues at hand, you have to collect rock engineering data and consider the unique specificities of the site.
The appropriate mining method should be determined at the onset of the project. Traditionally, ground support was designed by restraining the rock blocks that are found on the excavation face. But in modern ground support techniques, supporting elements are built to tolerate static and dynamic loads as well as large deformations of the rock mass. Experts in ground control will deal with recognising hazards, understanding failure methods and designing systems for ground support. You can mitigate the destabilisation of rock mass underground by optimising the locations of openings. This is done by taking major geological structures and the distributions of stresses within the rock mass into account. There should also be backfilling techniques in order to provide regional support. Surface reinforcement is a must when it comes to dealing with unstable rocks.
Through the use of local support systems such as pillars, the rock mass can be additionally braced. The sequential mining and rate of mining should be modified. The ground support experts will make sure that there are management strategies in place for small or large deformations that can happen. These strategies are planned by taking potential failure methods into consideration. By having an initial plan, design and a mode of operation in place, you can prepare for any injuries or damages that may occur. Some of the elements that are included in ground control plans are formulating a hazard control programme through thorough evaluation of the rock mass, creating a progressive plan for identifying hazards and the extraction of mining material safely and economically. One of the key elements of ground support planning is the diagnosis of failure methods.